بررسی اثر غلظت پلی اکریل آمید روی هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع سه بافت مختلف خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فسا، شهر فسا،

چکیده

امروزه استفاده از پلیمرها و مواد اصلاح‌کننده خاک و آب، اهمیت قابل‌توجهی در بخش کشاورزی دارد. یکی از مهم‌ترین پلیمرها که باعث کاهش فرسایش خاک و افزایش نفوذ آب در خاک می‏‏شود پلی اکریل آمید بانام تجاری PAM است. تحقیقات انجام‌شده در مورد اثر استفاده از PAM بر خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک (مانند هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع) نتایج یکسانی نداشته است. در این تحقیق اثر شش غلظت 0، 5،10، 15، 20 ، 25 و 30 میلی‏‏گرم بر لیتر که به‏صورت محلول PAM که به خاک اضافه شد، روی هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک‏های لوم شنی، لوم و لوم رس سیلتی به روش بار ثابت در آزمایشگاه با پنج تکرار بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش غلظت هر میلی‏‏گرم بر لیتر محلول PAM، لزجت محلول 9/1 درصد افزایش یافت. در خاک لوم شنی با افزایش غلظت PAM، هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک به‏صورت خطی و معنی‏داری کاهش یافت. با افزایش هر 5 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر محلول PAM هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک لوم شنی 6/2 سانتی‌متر بر ساعت کاهش یافت.در خاک سبک لوم شنی اثر افزایش لزجت محلول PAM عبوری از محیط متخلخل مشهودتر از اثر پیوند بین ذرات رس و PAM بود.در خاک‌های لوم و لوم رس سیلتی روند تغییرات هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک نسبت به غلظت PAM به‌صورت سهمی درجه 3 بود. در خاک لوم تا غلظت 20 میلی‏گرم بر لیتر PAM و در خاک لوم رس سیلتی تا غلظت 25 میلی‏گرم بر لیتر PAM هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع خاک افزایش و در غلظت‌های بزرگ‌تر از این مقادیر، هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع کاهش یافت.برای خاک‌های لوم و لوم رس سیلتی با افزایش غلظت محلول PAM تا مقدار بهینه مصرف اثر پیوند بین ذرات رس و PAM و بعدازآن اثر لزجت محلول PAM مشهود بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigate the effect of polyacrylamide concentration on saturation hydraulic conductivity for three different soil textures

نویسندگان [English]

  • vahid shahabizad 1
  • Mehdi Bahrami 2
1 Department of water engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin
2 Assistant Professor, Department of water engineering, College of Agriculture, Fasa University, Fasa, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, the use of polymers and soil and water reclamation agents has a significant bearing on agriculture. Polyacrylamide is one of the most important polymers that reduces soil erosion and increases water penetration in the soil by the PAM brand. Research on the effect of using PAM on soil physical properties (such as saturated hydraulic conductivity) has not had the same results. In this study the effect of six concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25and 30 mg/l dissolved PAM on saturate hydraulic conductivity 3 different soil textures (sandy loam, loam and silty clay loam) were studied in laboratory. Saturation hydraulic conductivity was measured with constant head method. For each treatment five replications were considered. Results showed that PAM viscosity increased about 1.9 % relative to water for each mg/l increase in PAM concentration. In sandy loam soil, with increasing PAM concentration, the hydraulic conductivity of soil saturation decreased linearly and significantly. With increasing of 5 mg / l of PAM solution, the hydraulic conductivity of sandy loam soil 2.6 cm / h decreased. In sandy loam soil, the effect of increasing the viscosity of PAM solution passing through the porous medium was more evident than the effect of the bond between clay and PAM particles. In loamy and silty clay loam soil texture, the trend of saturation hydraulic conductivity changes was compared to the PAM concentration as a parabolic curve. In the loam soils up to 20 mg / l PAM concentration and in the silty clay loam soil up to 25 mg / l PAM, the hydraulic conductivity of soil saturation increased and in concentrations greater than these values, the saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased. For loam soil and silty clay loam with increasing concentration of PAM solution to the optimum amount, the effect of bond between clay and PAM particles and later on the effect of viscosity PAM solution was evident.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • viscosity dissolved PAM
  • soil permeability and soil amendment
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