بررسی ردپای اکولوژیک آب و شاخص‌های آب مجازی در محصولات پسته و خرما در استان کرمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد،

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمان

چکیده

مشکل کمبود منابع آب و بارش یک واقعیت مهم و غیر قابل انکار در استان کرمان محسوب می‌شود. کل مصرف آب در داخل یک کشور به تنهایی معیار درستی از برداشت واقعی آب از منابع آب جهانی نیست. ردپای اکولوژیک آب شاخصی برای تعیین میزان مصرف واقعی آب است. لذا بررسی ردپای اکولوژیک آب و شاخص‌های آب مجازی محصولات استراتژیک می‌تواند در سیاست گذاری و برنامه ریزی بهینه منابع آب مفید باشد. بنابراین در این پژوهش جهت بررسی توانایی منطقه برای تامین آب مورد نیاز برای تولید داخلی، به محاسبه میزان ردپای اکولوژیک آب در محصولات کشاورزی استراتژیک استان (پسته و خرما) در سال 1388 پرداخته شد. در این تحقیق جهت انجام محاسبات از روش هوکسترا و هانگ و هوکسترا و همکاران استفاده شد. شاخص ردپای اکولوژیک آب استان در بخش کشاورزی 56/5 میلیارد متر مکعب تخمین زده شد که به ازاء هر نفر 2/2097 متر مکعب در سال است. استان کرمان صادر کننده آب مجازی شد و وابستگی استان به منابع آب خارجی بسیار کم بود. شاخص کم آبی یا شدت مصرف آب در بخش کشاورزی 3/123 درصد از منابع آب تجدید شونده استان برآورد گردید که بنا به تعریف کمیسیون توسعه پایدار سازمان ملل اگر حجم مصرف آب در هر کشور بیشتر از 40 درصد کل منابع آب تجدید پذیر سالانه باشد آن کشور کم آب تلقی می‌شود، لذا استان کرمان کم آب تلقی می‌شود. بنابراین کاهش فشار وارده بر منابع آب داخلی، مستلزم بهره‌گیری بیشتر از استراتژی مبادله آب مجازی در واردات محصولات با نیاز آبی بالا به استان می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on Ecological Water Footprint and indicators of virtual water in Agricultural Section of Kerman Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aboolazl Gholamhossien pour jafari nejad 1
  • Amin Alizadeh 2
  • Ali Neshat 3
1 PhD Student of Water Engineering Department., Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor of Water Engineering Department., Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Water Engineering Department., Agricultural College, Islamic Azad University of Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Shortage of water resources and rainfall is an undeniable reality in Kerman province. Total water use within a single country is not a proper measure for the actual harvest from the world's water resources. Water ecological footprint is an index to determine the actual amount of water consumption. Therefore, analyzing water ecological footprint and indices of strategic products virtual water are useful for optimal planning and programming of water resources. Thus, in the present study, ecological footprint of water in strategic agricultural products of Kerman province (pistachio and date) was calculated to investigate the ability of the region to meet the water requirements for domestic production. In this study, Hoekstra & Hung (2002) and Hoekstra et.al (2009) methods were used for calculations. Water ecological footprint index of the province in agriculture sector is estimated to be 5/56 billion cubic meters, which is 2097/2 cubic meters for each person yearly. Kerman province exports virtual water and has low dependence on external water resources. Water deficit index or intensity of water use in agriculture sector of the province is estimated to be 123/3 percent of all renewable water resources of the province. According to the definition of UN commission on sustainable development, once the volume of water used in each country is more than 40 percent of total annual renewable water resources, then the country in considered low water. Therefore, Kerman province is low water and reducing the pressure on domestic water resources of the province may require using more virtual water trade strategy in importing products with a high water requirement

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • virtual water
  • Pistachio
  • dates
  • water footprint
  • water scarcity
  • Water dependency
  • Kerman
Alcamo, J., Henrichs, T and Rosch, T. 2000. World Water in 2025: Global Modeling and Scenario Analysis for the World Commision on Water for the 21th Century, Center for Environmental Systems Research, Report A0002. University of Kassel. Germany, P, 49.

2. Aldaya, M.M and Hoekstra, A.Y. 2010. The water needed for Italians to eat pasta and pizza. Agricultural Systems, 103: 351–360.

3. Aldaya, M.M and Lamas, M.R. 2009. Water footprint analysis (Hydrologic and Economic) of the guadiana river basin, Published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris. Rance, UNESCO 2009, ISBN 978-92-3-104117-4., pp. 39.

4. Aldaya, M.M. Allan, J.A and Hoekstra, A.Y. 2010. Strategic importance of green water in international crop trade. Ecological Economics, 69: 887–894.

5. Aldaya, M.M., Santos, P.M and·Llamas, M.R. 2010. Incorporating the water footprint and virtual water into policy: Reflections from the manta occidental region. Spain. Water Resource Management, 24: 941–958.

6. Arabi Yazdi, A., Alizadeh, A and Nairizi, S. 2009. Study of food security based on the concept of virtual water trade and ecological water foot print (Case study: Khorasan Razavi Province). Journal Agroecology, 1: 1-12.

7. Bulsink, F., Hoekstra, A.Y and Booij, M.J. 2010. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14: 119–128.

8. Chapagain, A.K., Hoekstra, A.Y., Savenije, H.H.G and Gautam, R. 2006. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries. Ecological Economics, 60: 186-203.

9. Chapagain, A.K., Hoekstra, A.Y and Savenije, H.H.G. 2006. "Water saving through international trade of agricultural products" . Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10: 455–468.

10. Ehsani, M., Khaledi, H and Barghi, Y. 2009. Introduction to virtual water, Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (IRNCID), pp.112.

11. Hoekstra, A.Y and Chapagain, A.K. 2007. Water footprint of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water Resource Management. 21(1): 35-48.

12. Hoekstra, A.Y and Chapagain, A.K. 2008. Globalization of water: Sharing the planet's freshwater resources, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.

13. Hoekstra, A.Y and Hung, P.Q. 2002. Virtual water trade: a quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 11, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands, pp. 25-47.

14. Hoekstra, A.Y. 2008. Water neutral: reducing and off setting the impacts of water footprints. Value of water research report series, NO. 28, pp. 42.

15. Hoekstra, A.Y., Chapagain, A.K., Aldaya, M.M and Mekonnen, M.M. 2009. Water footprint manual, State of the art, Web www.waterfootprint.org, pp. 131.

16. Leenesa, W.G., Hoekstraa, A.Y and Meerb, T.H. 2009. The water footprint of bioenergy, PANAS, 106 (25): 10219-10223.

17. Ma, J., Hoekstra, A.Y., Wang, H., Chapagain, A.K and Wang, D. 2006. Review Virtual versus real water transfers within China. Journal Philosophical Transactions Royal Society Bacteriology, 361: 835–842.

18. Smakthin, V., Revenga, C and Doll, P. 2004. Taking into Account Environmental Water Requirements in Global-scale Water Resources Assessments. Comprehensive Asessment of Water Management in Agriculture, Research Report 2, IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

19. Sohrabi, R. 2006. Developed a mathematical model to calculate the optimal amount of virtual water supply needs of the region in terms of economic, social and food security. Undergraduate thesis, Sharif University of technology, Tehran, Iran, (In Farsi).

20. Van oel, P.R., Mekonnen, M.M and Hoekstra, A.Y. 2008. The external water footprint of the Netherlands: Quantification and impact assessment. Value of Water Research Report Series, No. 33, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands, p. 72.

21.Yang, H and Zehnder, A.J.B. 2005. The south-north water transfer project in China: An analysis of water demand uncertainty and environmental objective in decision making. Water International, 30(3): 339–349.

22. Yang, H., Reichert, P., Abbaspour, K and Zehnder, A.J.B. 2003. A water resources threshold and its implications for food security. Environmental Science and Technology, 37: 3048-3054.