Irrigation and Water Engineering
http://www.waterjournal.ir/
Irrigation and Water Engineeringendaily1Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0430Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0430Investigation and evaluation of sprinkler irrigation systems in some fields of Isfahan and Hamedan provinces
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_88367.html
More attention to increase water productivity in water crisis and recent drought condition is needed. More attention to increase water productivity in water crisis and recent drought conditions is required. In this way, the use of pressurized irrigation systems as alternative instead of surface irrigation systems is recommended. Therefore, in this study, in order to assess the system performance and water productivity determination nine and ten potato fields in Isfahan and Hamedan Provinces respectively were evaluated for 2 years. Uniformity coefficients, water productivity, water use and potential and actual application efficiency of low quarter (PELQ، AELQ، CU and DU) were determined. Average of PELQ, AELQ, CU and DU in Isfahan were equal 61.5%, 58%, 66.8% and 75.8% and in Hamedan were equal 53.9%, 44.8%, 71.10%, 81.1% respectively. By determining the amount of water consumed and the yield of the product, the average water productivity of potato in Hamadan and Isfahan was estimated about 6.6 and 6.3 kg.m-3 respectively. The results of this study showed that in most of the studied farms, deficit irrigation used. The main issues on the results of these assessments can include factors such as non-compliance of design rules with the implementation phase and Unsuitable implementation, operational problems, and inadequate information on the operation and preservation of the system, and the mismatch of water consumption with the plant's water requirement. In addition, concurrent use of many sprinklers and using more than one sprinkler on laterals considered as the most important reason for low water distribution.Investigating the effect of wetness index and spectral data on estimating the percentage of soil particles using different methods
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_88368.html
Direct estimation of some soil characteristics is time consuming, costly and sometimes not possible. In recent years, indirect methods have been used to estimate these properties. In the present study, to predict the soil texture fractions, 115 profiles were identified based on the Hypercube technique, and the horizons were sampled and the percentage of sand, clay and silt of soil samples were measured. Environmental variables used in this study include the terrain attributes (derived from a digital elevation model), Landsat 8 image data (acquired in 2015), geomorphological map, and spectrometric data (laboratory data). Artificial neural network, regression tree and neuro-fuzzy models were used to make a correlation between soil data (clay, sand and silt) and environmental variables. The results of this study showed that the neuro-fuzzy model was more accurate in prediction of the three parameters of clay, sand and silt than artificial neural network and tree regression . The RMSE value in the neuro fuzzy model was compared to regression tree model. The neuro fuzzy model results were, for clay surface 1.43 %, for sand surface 1.98% and for silt surface 2.1% that reduced by 6.71%, 8.49% and 5.42% for clay, sand and silt respectively, compared to regression tree model. The results also showed that the most important auxiliary variables are spectrometric data followed by MrVBF and wetness index.Application of Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) For Optimal Allocation of Reservoir Water in Golestan Dam
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_90777.html
Regarding climate change, and consequently the decrease in the Gergranod River catchment area, as well as the sharp decrease in the volume of water stored behind the Golestan dam in recent years, a review of the water allocation problem is necessary. Therefore, in this research, the optimal values of water harvesting from the Golestan dam reservoir are calculated using the colonial competition algorithm (ICA), which is one of the interconnected algorithms based on socio-political evolution. In this study, the proper parameters of the colonial competition algorithm were calculated with try and error, and then in five times the implementation of this algorithm in the first run in the 1240 repetition of 2,363.2 million cubic meters for the target function, in the second run in repeat 1256, the value of the target function 4947/2 Million cubic meters, in the third run in Repetition 1271 the value of the objective function was 1,971.1 million cubic meters, the 1300 repetition in the fourth run was 304.1 million cubic meters for the target function, and in the fifth implementation and repeat 1450, the value of the target function was 1,2473.1 million cubic meters Come. The comparison between the values of the objective function indicates that with increasing the number of repetitions, the value of the objective function is reduced. The results indicate that this algorithm is good.Investigation of Velocity Changes in a Straight Asymmetric Rectangular Composite Channel Using Flow-3D Software
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158503.html
In this study, the flow inside a rectangular composite channel was studied by finite volume numerical method, for which Flow-3d software was used. Comparing the results of the numerical model with the laboratory results, it was concluded that the numerical model can well simulate the flow inside a rectangular composite channel. Performing numerical modeling of suitable boundary conditions, a grid with the desired dimensions and a suitable turbulence model was obtained to describe the hydraulic flow inside the rectangular composite channel. Three turbulence models of the two equations K-&epsilon;, RNG K-&epsilon; and K-&omega; and one turbulence model of large vortices LES were used. Also, the effect of geometric parameters and flow on the average velocity in the composite channel was investigated. The results obtained from this study show that with increasing the width of the floodplain at different depths, the flow velocity has decreased, so that in the value of = 0.75 (yf / H), with decreasing the flood width of the right plain from 5.71 to 13.33 cm, the ratio of flow velocity in the section of the main channel to the average velocity has also increased by 51%. It should be noted that with increasing the depth of the floodplain, the flow velocity has decreased. Also, with increasing the height of the main channel wall, the flow velocity decreases.Investigation of Transient Flow Field Data in Water Transmission Mains Using Bentley Hammer Software (Case Study)
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158504.html
Water transmission systems consist of storage reservoirs, pumping stations and pipelines. Pump station power failure, opening and closing of control valves and pipe rupture because transient conditions in pipelines. Transient flow principal equations such as momentum and continuity equations are mainly analyzed by the method of characteristics using engineering software and under boundary conditions. In this study, friction head losses were calculated by Bentley Hammer software under steady, quasi steady, unsteady and unsteady-Vitkovsky states and the results were compared. In Piranshahr water transmission system, the pressure changes were measured using a rapid and sensitive pressure indicator at the pumping station and under critical conditions of electricity power failure. Field data were compared to the Bentley Hammer output data using statistical methods. A comparison between the two, demonstrated the correspondence of time periods. Under unsteady-Vitkovsky method, the mean absolute errors were 5.13 and 5.45 mH2o for the initial stages and full period of data logging, respectively. For the maximum pressures values, the maximum difference was observed in the unsteady method (-14.62 mH2o) and the least values were associated with the steady and quasi steady method (-4.58 and -4.56m H2o respectively). As for the minimum pressures, the steady method yielded the highest (-5.55 mH2o) and the unsteady method the lowest difference (-1.52 mH2o). Increasing and decreasing the wave speed directly affected the maximum pressures while having an inverse impact on the minimum values. Based on the results of this study, the use of unsteady-Vitkovsky method in. Hydraulic modeling is recommndedNumerical Investigation of the Effect of a Pair of Protective Spur Dikes on the Scouring around the Series Spur Dikes
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158505.html
Among the approaches to reduce flood damage is to reduce the flow rate near the shore by spur dikes. The study first simulated the transfer of sediment and scour around series spur dikes in an experimental model using Flow 3d software. According to the comparison results, one can observe a good match between the results of the numerical and experimental models that the error rates of MAPE around the first spur dike, for U/Ucr ratios were, 0.75, 0.85 and 0.95 and were 9%, 13.79% and 14.10%, respectively. Then two protective spur dikes with various lengths (10 and 20 cm) were used in canal upstream and the effects of the presence of these two protective spur dikes simultaneously on the scour around the main spur dike were examined. In modeling done, increase in U/Ucr depth increases the maximum spur dike depth, so that with increase in U/Ucr by 26% (from 0.75 to 0.95), the increase in the maximum depth of the first spur was 51%, in the second spur dike 4 times, and in the third spur dike 116%. When the protective spur dike couple with various lengths is used simultaneously, and then these two protective spur dikes simultaneously drastically reduce the effect of the flow intensity to the wall and nose of the main spur dike. Moreover, the maximum depth of scour around the&nbsp;Effect of Geometric Arrangement of the Baffles on the Energy Dissipation Rate of the Baffled Chutes
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158506.html
Baffled chutes are energy dissipation structures that are used in chutes and water conveyance and distribution structures. Energy dissipation in these structures occurs by the flow collision with the upstream side of the installed baffles on the chute. In the present study, the Flow-3D numerical model was used to simulate flow behavior on the baffled chutes. For this purpose, the numerical calculations were validated using the available experimental data upon introduction of the boundary conditions. Then, the effect of the distance between the baffle rows on the energy dissipation rate of the baffled chutes was studied. The results showed that for a fixed distance between the baffles according to the USBR recommendation, by increasing the distance between the baffle rows (decreased number of baffles), the flow collision to the baffles decreased and consequently, energy dissipation rate decreased. In addition, by continuous increase of the distance between the baffle rows on the chute, the energy dissipation rate on the chute increased (even with smaller number of baffles). In the present study, the effect of increasing the number of baffles on the chute width was studied by keeping a constant blockage. The results showed that by increasing the number of baffles on the chute width (for a constant blockage), the energy dissipation rate did not change significantly. However, the blockage magnitude in the chute width influenced the energy dissipation rate of the chute.Solving Water Hammer equations by Chebyshev super-spectral viscosity method and unsteady roughness coefficient
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158507.html
Predicting the impact due to the Water Hammer phenomenon is very important in the design of the pipe line and Water Hammer control equipment. Different numerical methods are used to solve Water Hammer equations. In this research, Chebyshev spectral method and Chebyshev super-spectral viscosity method have been used to solve these equations in the case of sudden and slow closing of the valve with steady, quasi-steady and unsteady roughness coefficient and were compared with experimental data. In the case of rapid closing of the valve, both spectral methods with unsteady roughness coefficient have high accuracy in predicting the pressure and the results of both methods are same. However, in the case of slow closing of the valve with unsteady roughness coefficient, at the beginning of the Water Hammer, there is an error in calculating the minimum and maximum pressure, and over time, the error decreases and the pressure values are predicted later than the real time. Comparison of the results of Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method with the finite difference method shows that the spectral method has a higher accuracy in fast closing of the valve than the finite difference method. While in the case of slow closing of the valve at the beginning of the Water Hammer, the finite difference method has a higher accuracy in calculating the minimum and maximum pressure values. But over time, the results of the Chebyshev viscosity spectral method conform to the results of the finite difference method, and both methods predict pressure values later.Evaluation of Full Factorial, Taguchi and Central Composite Design Methods in Reducing Nitrate Leaching from Soil under Zeolite Treatment
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158509.html
Use of nitrate fertilizer to increase crop yield is a method used by many farmers. Once this ion enters the soil, it is converted to nitrate and easily leached. Using zeolite is one of the methods to prevent nitrate leaching has received much attention today; however, determining the exact amount of nitrate fertilizer when using zeolite is very important. Performing experiments in a classic way and taking into account the effect of all factors (factorial design) needs time and cost in performing experiments. For this reason, old research methods should be replaced by simple and standard methods such as Taguchi and central composite design. For this purpose, this study was conducted in a completely randomized as factorial design. Treatments consisted of zeolite (at three amount; zero, 2 and 6%) and nitrate application (at three levels; zero, 200 and 400 mg nitrate per kg of soil) with three replications. Taguchi and central composite designs were considered with 9 and 13 experiments, respectively. The results of complete factorial method showed that the amount of zeolite had a significant effect on nitrate leaching; however, nitrate fertilizer had no effect on nitrate leaching. According to Taguchi results, both zeolite and nitrate fertilizer were very important on nitrate leaching reduction from soil. Based on prioritizing the effect in the central composite design, it was observed that zeolite was the most important factor in reducing nitrate leaching. Based on the results, the application of 2% zeolite was the beginning of the effect of zeolite on nitrate leaching. Therefore, it can be expected that in amounts between 2 to 6% zeolite, a significant reduction in nitrate leaching occurs.Educational Needs Assessment of Agriculturalists with Pressurized Irrigation System with Water Scarcity Adaptation (Case Study: Qazvin Province)
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158510.html
Sustainable use of water resources is now the challenge of the century, especially in arid and semi-arid countries. The use of pressurized irrigation systems improves the water productivity of plants if used properly. This study was to assess the educational needs assessment of agriculturalists with pressurized irrigation system with water scarcity adaptation. The three-dimensional model of Kauffman, Corrigan, and Johnson, and the Delphi method were used for the educational needs assessment of agriculturalists. The findings showed that agriculturalists' knowledge and skills in terms of "agriculturalists", "experts" and "trainer" were 3.11&plusmn;1.26, 2.26&plusmn;0.76, and 2.24&plusmn;0.81, respectively for farmers and 3.69&plusmn;1.1, 2.31&plusmn;0.75, and 2.45&plusmn;0.87 (out of 5 points), respectively for horticulturists. Knowledge of agriculturalists in most educational needs, especially from the point of view of experts and trainers, is below average (score 3). The most important educational needs based on three perspectives were "determination of irrigation time with new tools and technologies", "specific irrigation mode for each crop" "adaptation of farm management with irrigation system type" for farmers, and "water loss reduction in irrigation ponds", "specific irrigation mode for each crop" and "how to operate pressurized irrigation systems" for horticulturists. The results of this study showed the priorities of defining the headings and training courses for agriculturalists with a pressurized irrigation system. The findings also showed that agriculturalists are aware of the importance and necessity of education and that for effective education future research should focus on identifying educational practices appropriate to the climate, cultural, and social conditions.Laboratory Study of Moisture Distribution in Surface and Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158511.html
Soil moisture distribution is affected by various factors such as discharge and the type of irrigation systems. In this study, it is tried to compare the horizontal and vertical distribution of moisture, redistribution of moisture in the soil and the wetting area at the end of irrigation in two surface and subsurface drip irrigation systems. For this purpose, an experiment in the form of a glass physical model with dimensions of 1 &times; 0.5&times;1.20 m, two installation depths (0 and 30 cm) and three discharges (Q1=2, Q2=4 and Q3=8 liters/hour) for sandy soil texture was performed during six hours of irrigation as factorial and in a completely randomized design. Irrigation moisture redistribution was investigated after 68 hr. The results showed that in the subsurface drip system with doubling and quadrupling the discharge, the wetting area increased to three and five times, but in the surface system it changed to two and four times, respectively. Also, changes in moisture redistribution in the subsurface drip system have been more than the surface drip system, because in the surface drip system, water moves more freely in the soil and most changes in the moisture front were made before redistribution. Considering the moisture redistribution is very important for the design of irrigation systems because it leads to better management of moisture distribution and prevention of deep losses.Estimation of Surface Temperature in Agricultural Lands Using Satellite Images (Case Study: Soleimanshah Irrigation Network)
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158520.html
Land surface temperature is a significant variable involved in land surface energy and water balance and is a substantial component in many aspects of environmental research. The land surface temperature is usually calculated based on thermal bands. Landsat 8 satellite thermal bands are the newest infrared thermal bands, included two adjacent thermal bands with a spatial separation of 30 meters. There are several methods for calculating land surface temperature. These methods are of three groups: Methods that only need satellite data, methods that require satellite data and leaf area index (LAI), and Methods that require satellite data and meteorological data. In this study, the land surface temperature simulated by the Planck Inverse Function, SEBAL algorithm, Statistical Mono-Window algorithm, Split Window Algorithm, Mono-Window Algorithm, Radiation Transfer Equation, Sabrino Split Window Algorithm, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Joint Polar Satellite System, And the Single-Channel Algorithm and compared with the surface temperature measured in the LPT2 construction area of Soleimanshah irrigation network during the growing season of nut sunflower in 2020 based on two criteria of R 2 and RMSE. The results showed the Planck Inverse Function, SEBAL algorithm Statistical Mono-Window algorithm, Split Window algorithm, and Mono Window algorithm respectively have high accuracy (Those approaches are not dependent on meteorological data). Among them, the Planck Inverse Function with values of R2 and RMSE of 0.6 and 4.2 &deg; C, respectively has the highest accuracy. The Sabrino Split Window algorithm, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Joint Polar Satellite System, and the Single-Channel algorithm, respectively have low accuracy.Effect of water deficit imposing methods on yield and water productivity indices of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Ahvaz region
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158521.html
In order to investigate the effect of irrigation deficit on cucumbers grown in greenhouse conditions, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three irrigation levels of 100, 85 and 75% water requirement in two growing seasons during the years 2018 and 2019.Performance and quantitative and qualitative performance indicators were measured during the experiment. The results showed that in the first crop of treatments of 85 and 75 percent of water requirement, the amount of water consumption productivity decreased by 6.12 and 15.73 percent compared to the control treatment, respectively. Also in the second crop, the amount of water consumption in treatments of 85 and 75% of water requirement compared to the control treatment has decreased by 3.4 and 12.6%. Analysis of data related yield indices and plant growth indices showed that with decreasing water consumption, water productivity and performance are significantly reduced.Determination of optimum furrow length and Application of SIRMOD Model in Furrow Irrigation Simulation
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158523.html
Surface irrigation is the most irrigated area in the entire country. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate this irrigation system due to improve irrigation efficiency. One of the existing software for assessing surface irrigation methods is SIRMOD model. In this study, a few models in the SIRMOD package were evaluated. In hence, three data groups of research stations of Kabutarabad (Isfahan), Hashem Abad (Mazandaran) and Zarghan (Fars) were used as local inputs. The soil texture of these fields was silty clay loam, silty clay loam and silty clay respectively. First, the length of the Furrow was investigated by using three methods: FAO, SCS and W&amp;S. Optimum Furrow length in these areas was determined as 120, 200 and 100 meters, respectively. The results of reliability indices such as NRMSE, ME and R2 were used to compare simulated and measured values of the parameters which indicated the high accuracy of the models those have performed well in predicting advanced and recession time in furrow. The results also revealed that the hydrodynamic model was more accurate than the two zero-inertia and kinematic inertia models in predicting advanced and recession times. According to the results of this study, the highest error of these models was related to estimating the amount of runoff at 5% and the lowest was related to the infiltration depth parameter at 2.7%. Therefore, the models in the SIRMOD package estimate the cumulative infiltration rate in the soil to be higher than the runoff rate.Design and Construction of Electronic Irrigation Canal Gate
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158524.html
Water level and flow control gates are the most important parts of any irrigation network. Most of the gates located in the irrigation networks face problems after the operation. While mechanizing gates for surface irrigation systems can greatly save water consumption and increase water efficiency. In this project, it was tried to design and construct a gate using modern technologies, which can be intelligently operated and able to pass the desired discharge. Bubble rubber was used to seal the gate and minimizing water loss. Electromotor, encoder, ultrasonic sensor, inverter, and PLC were used to mechanize the gate. An ultrasonic sensor was applied to read the water level. All the computations of the gate-opening rate are performed by the PLC and then the instructions are transmitted to the electromotor. The encoder is connected to the electromotor and, according to the computations, controls the number of motor revolutions for a given opening rate. The TIA Portal environment used to control the gate motion system. The program written in the TIA Portal environment includes all the settings related to the flow discharge, gate opening, sensitivity of the ultrasonic sensor, and gate-opening rate to provide the flexibility of the gate in real conditions. In order to calibrate the constructed sluice gate according to the obtained equation, several experiments were used and finally, the coefficient of 0.625 was obtained as a correction coefficient. The coefficient of determination and root mean square error for the calibrated equation were calculated to be 0.97 and 0.66, respectively. These results showed the suitable performance of the automatic gate based on a calibrated equationComparison of the Effects of Subsurface Drip Irrigation and Bubbler Systems on Water Consumption Efficiency in Pistachio Trees (Case study: Irrigation of pistachio in Sirjan)
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158525.html
One of the important indicators in determining water use efficiency for agricultural productions is the index of water consumption efficiency. This study was conducted to determine the water use efficiency of pistachio in Sirjan city located in the southwest of Kerman province in 2015. To compare bubbler and subsurface drip irrigation methods, 27 pistachio orchards with an area of 1373 hectares were selected to determine water use efficiency, of which four orchards were equipped with the bubbler system and the rest were equipped with subsurface system. Bubbler discharge, irrigation time, area of each irrigation plot and crop yield were studied. By measuring the volume of irrigation water after irrigating the field and the amount of water wasted along the route, the average gross volume of applied irrigation water was calculated. After harvesting, the average yield of pistachio per hectare was calculated. The results of this study showed that the subsurface drip irrigation method compared to bubbler irrigation method, not only significantly increases water use efficiency but also increases crop yield by 34%. Therefore, according to the results and also the current water shortage conditions in Sirjan city, the use of subsurface drip irrigation method is more appropriate than bubbler irrigation to irrigate pistachio orchards.Optimization of Multi-Reservoir System Operation Using Symbiotic Organisms Search Algorithm Based on the Fitness-Distance-Balance
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158526.html
In recent decades, metaheuristic algorithms have been successfully applied in various aspects of water resource engineering and management issues, especially in reservoirs' optimal operation. In this paper, a new method based on Symbiotic Organisms Search using the Fitness-Distance-Balance (FDB-SOS) algorithm has been developed for modeling optimal operation of complex multi reservoir system Baft, Safarood, and Jiroft reservoirs of Halilrood basin situated at latitude 56◦51ʹ-61◦30ʹ N and longitude 26◦18ʹ-29◦30ʹ E. The system consists of 3 different agricultural irrigation demands allocation with environmental prioritize in the long-term (from 2000 to 2019) approach. The developed model was used to solve the complex multi-reservoir system operating Halilrood basin. The new FDB-SOS algorithm results were compared with other developed evolutionary algorithms, including Harmony Search Algorithm (HS) and Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). Results showed the new FDB-SOS algorithm&rsquo;s sustainability index was obtained 87.23, 74.34, and 96.03 percent of downstream demands for Baft, Safarood, and Jiroft reservoirs. The finding revealed that the new FDB-SOS algorithm was the superior algorithm in optimal operation of the multi-reservoir system.Numerical Investigation the effect of Groundwater Uplift on the Interface Between Fresh and Saline Water and Mixing Zone in the Aquiefrs Adjacent Deserts
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158527.html
Most parts of Iran have arid and semi-arid climates. Therefore, many deserts and playas have been formed in these areas. In the present study, the return of saline water due to the groundwater head increase in the aquifers with the usage of SUTRA numerical model, was investigated. In order to assess the wedge behavior of saline water in transient state, the toe length of the wedge is analiezed. The changes in the hight of wedge shape due to the time is measured.&nbsp; The results showed that: a) with the progression of the wedge behavior, its height is getting earlier to the steady state in comparison to its length, however in the return time, they both reached the steady condition at the same time. b) Unlike the wedge's length, which reachec the steady state earlier than the progession time, its height has an equal time to reach the steady condition in both states (progression and return). The achieved results also showed that due to the mixing processe, the mixing zone expanded earlier in return phase. Also, as the wedge approached the steady condition, the area of mixing zone decreased gradually.Integration of finite element method and inclined planes system optimization algorithm in minimizing groundwater level reduction
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158528.html
Groundwater resource management to meet human water needs and reduce the drop in groundwater levels due to uncontrolled abstraction, is one of the important issues of the country. Therefore, in this study, the simulation-optimization model (FEM-IPO) was used to manage the operation of the aquifer. The mathematical model of the aquifer groundwater flow was performed using finite element numerical simulation. In order to find the optimal location of wells and reduce the drop level, the optimal model of the aquifer was prepared using the slope algorithm. The results show that the western and northwestern areas of the plain have more potential for digging pumping wells. Also in the studied aquifer and according to the defined water requirement, 5 wells located on the west and northwest sides with a maximum drop of 28.49 meters has been the most optimal model for exploiting the aquifer. In this study, the water level calculated by the finite element model was compared with the observational water level of the model, so that the relative error and the root mean square error were 0.00024 and 0.224, respectively, which indicates the high accuracy of the model. Also, due to high accuracy, efficiency and time saving in modeling, FEM-IPO model can be used as a model for optimal operation of the aquifer.Simulation of Groundwater Gesture and Prediction of Groundwater Level Fluctuations by Applying a Management Scenario in Nahavand Plain Aquifer, Hamadan Province
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158529.html
Groundwater aquifers is the main &nbsp;&nbsp;source of water supply required by the country in recent years and the use of simulation models for proper aquifer management is essential. In this study, the water table variations in the Nahavand aquifer were simulated with a GMS (computer based model) in a steady state for the month of October and unsteady state for 9 years from October 2006 to September 2015. To calibrate the model, the field measured data from piezometric wells were used from 2015 to 2016. The estimation of hydrodynamic parameters of the aquifer using PEST package was carried out with the adaptation of the depth to water table by implementation to model. The results of the model include prediction of water table variations in Nahavand Plain &nbsp;&nbsp;by considering with or without three management scenarios which shows reducing at the time of wells Operation &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;in the next 10 years. The results showed that lowering the withdrawal from the wells by less than 10% could not stop the downward trend of the aquifer potentials. The reduction of 30% of the utilized may resulted in the establishment of fixed conditions and a reduction of more than that to a value of 50% capable of compensating for the deficit in a long-term period. Finally, the average depth of the groundwater level was determined by the Theisen method during the study period for each year, and the zoning and groundwater level map was processed by GIS software, It&rsquo;s found that, groundwater level has been reduced in different areas of the plain from 1.5 to 13 m and the average of the total aquifer was 5.7 m declination during the study period.Extraction of joint probabilistic distribution functions of characteristics of precipitation using a four-dimensional D-vine tree structure
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158530.html
Multivariate frequency analysis of hydrological phenomena by considering the dependence between the basic characteristics of these phenomena will lead to more their accurate estimation. Due to the high flexibility provided by vine tree copulas in problems with dimension greater than two. In this study the D-vine function is used to determine the four-dimensional probabilistic distribution function of main characteristics of the precipitation events of Cremona station in Italy (including maximum rainfall intensity, total rainfall depth, duration of wet period and dry period). First, due to the significant dependence between the main characteristics of precipitation events and also using their permutation, D-vine tree structures were obtained. After fitting the various Archimedean and elliptical copula families to the pair-copulas of each D-vine tree structure, the most suitable copula families were determined for fitting the pair-copulas of each D-vine structure by the maximum log-likelihood, Akaike (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Then, in order to evaluate the accuracy of the four-dimensional probabilistic distribution functions of the important characteristics of precipitation events, the mentioned functions were compared with the corresponding four-dimensional empirical copulas. Finally, the M-R-D-L four-dimensional D-vine structure according to the evaluation criteria of R2 = 0.991, RMSE = 0.031, and MAE = 0.024, was selected as the most appropriate structure for constructing of the joint distribution function of main characteristics of precipitation in Cremona stationAnalyzing Agricultural Drought in Mazandaran Province Using Remote Sensing and Meteorological Indicators
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158531.html
Agricultural drought has become a major concern worldwide due to the severe impact on crops and the indirect impact on occupation as well as per capita income.&nbsp;The use of reflective remote sensing techniques to evaluate the effects of drought is recognized as one of the most efficient methods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze agricultural drought in Mazandaran province using Remote sensing and meteorological indicators.&nbsp;At the first,&nbsp;SPI, ZSI and EDI indices were calculated at different time scales and the best index was selected based on the normal distribution method.&nbsp;Then, using Landsat 5, 7 and 8 satellite images, NDVI, EVI and VCI remote sensing indices were extracted and the best index was selected based on the highest correlation with appropriate drought index.&nbsp;Finally, using the best meteorological and remote sensing&nbsp;indices, the agricultural drought in Mazandaran province was evaluated in two very dry (89) and very wet (92) years for different seasons. The results showed that based on the normal distribution method, the sum of the difference from normal distribution for the SPI index is lower than the other indices. The results also showed that the highest correlation was observed between VCI spectral index and SPI meteorological index with time delay of three and six months. The results also showed that the mean VCI in all seasons of very dry year (89) for all stations was below 0.50 and maximum stations had a VCI value of less than 0.35 but in all seasons of very wet year (92) for most stations is above 0.5Spatiotemporal Analysis of Precipitation and its Relationship with Teleconnection Patterns (Case study: Urmia Lake basin))
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158532.html
Temporal and spatial variations in rainfall play a key role in the balance of water resources. The catchment area of Lake Urmia, as the largest inland lake in Iran, is the destination of the most important rivers in the northwest of the country. Accordingly, in the present study, the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall in the Lake Urmia basin was investigated. The data used are the total frequency of seasonal and annual precipitation of 59 meteorological stations and data related to 11 teleconnection patterns during 1992-2016 and the main methods, statistical characteristics (first quartile, third quartile, and seasonal and annual Coefficient of variation), principal component analysis, Ward hierarchical cluster analysis, Kriging geostatistical method, and Pearson correlation. In the study of statistical features, it was found that the highest coefficient of variation in summer and the highest numerical value of the first and third quartile in winter were calculated and the highest coefficient of variation in the middle, central and southern parts, more values of the first quartile in the northern and western parts and higher quartile values are observed in the western and southern halves. Based on the results of temporal and spatial analysis, it was determined that the highest amount of precipitation occurs in the spring in the western half. Performing principal component analysis determined that the six main factors explain about 95% of the variance of the data and the most important influential components are the first and third quartile of autumn, winter, and annual. The results of cluster analysis identified three groups in central and southern regions, western and southwestern and northern half. The study of the relationship between winter rainfall and teleconnection patterns showed that this relationship is significant with NAO, EAWR, and MOI patterns.Analysis of Economic, Sustainability Inequality and Water Consumption in Between Members of Economic Cooperation Organization
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158533.html
Considering the importance of water scarcity, the purpose of this research is to use the econometric model to determine the share of economic inequality, sustainability and water consumption (QESW) in Between Members of Economic Cooperation Organization. In terms of comparison of countries based on the added value to gross domestic production and the efficiency of water use in the industry, agriculture and service sectors, the country of Azerbaijan with the highest coefficient of added value to gross domestic production in the industry sector is one of the countries with a high coefficient of water use efficiency. It is in the industry sector. Also, while the coefficient of added value to gross domestic production in the agricultural sector was high in Afghanistan, this country was one of the countries with a high coefficient in terms of the efficiency of water use in the agricultural sector of Afghanistan. Azerbaijan has been one of the countries with the highest coefficient of water use efficiency in the service sector with the highest coefficient of added value to gross domestic production in the service sector. According to what was mentioned, using the QESW analysis policy makers can adopt strategies for better management of water resources regarding water scarcity and crisis.Application of Water Poverty Index in Spatial Analysis of Water Stress in Sistan Region
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158534.html
According to statistics, Sistan region is one of the arid and low water areas. And the issue of water shortage and drought is one of the crises that threaten the Sisan region in the near future. Water and poverty are closely linked, so a strong assessment of water stress is essential to identify areas in need and develop appropriate interventions to reduce poverty. The Water Poverty Index (WPI) is a tool for assessing water stress by linking physical estimates of available water levels with socioeconomic incentives for poverty. It is also a comprehensive tool for managing and evaluating water resources. This study presents the application of water poverty index (WPI) to estimate and compare water stress levels in 5 cities of Sistan region in 2021-2022. The results of the study show that the average poverty index in the cities of Sistan region in the same weight condition is 0.48 and, in the weight, according to AHP method is 0.43. The water poverty index varies from 0.60 to 0.23 among the cities of Sistan. hirmand city has more water stress compared to other cities. In order to deal with water poverty in Sistan region, management and optimal use of water resources, especially in drought conditions, is very important.Determining the Optimal Cropping Pattern with Footprint and Quality Water Approach (Case Study: Bardsir City)
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158535.html
Agriculture has always been considered as an important factor in the development of human civilization and today this sector is one of the most important economic sectors and the largest consumer of water in Iran and the world. Irregular extraction of groundwater by this sector has caused a water shortage crisis in most parts of Iran. Therefore, the country's water resources need to be planned and managed in order to be sustainable. One way is to determine the optimal cropping pattern by considering the quantity and quality of water. Therefore, in this study, using game theory, the optimal cropping pattern has been determined by considering the footprint index and water quality in Bardsir city. For this purpose, five major crops of this city have been considered and the necessary statistics and information have been collected from the Meteorological Organization, the Regional Water Administration and the Agricultural Jihad Organization of Kerman province and Bardsir city for the years 2005-2017. The results showed that wheat, barley, alfalfa, potato and fodder corn had the highest water footprint, respectively. In the optimal cropping pattern obtained from game theory compared to the current cropping pattern; the area under cultivation of wheat, barley and potato decreased by 4%, 7% and 12%, respectively, and the area under cultivation of alfalfa and fodder corn increased by 4% and 25%, respectively. The optimal cropping pattern obtained from game theory is recommended for this city, because in this pattern, in addition to economic benefits, attention has been paid to the quantity and quality of water so that water resources do not face a crisis.Determining the Important stations and Physicochemical Parameters of Surface water Quality Measurement in Gorgan-Rud Basin (Iran) Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158536.html
This study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of surface water quality monitoring network and identify monitoring stations and water quality parameters, which are important in assessing annual variations of water quality in Gorgan-Rud Basin, Golestan Province. Cluster analysis (CA) was used to sort cases (monitoring points) into groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) techniques were applied for these objectives. In this study water quality data of nineteen water quality monitoring stations over a 23-year time period (1996-2018), were analysed. Principal component analysis has determined a reduced number of three principal components that explain over 95.47 % of the data set variance. Results indicated that three monitoring stations (Taghi-Abad, Shir-Abad, and Nodeh) were identified as less important in explaining the annual variance of the water quality parameters. Based on the coefficient of determination improvements of regression relations, concluded that removing of the less important stations (from 19 to 16) can help the cost effectiveness and meaningful data collection of the monitoring network in the study domain. In addition, results revealed more important water quality parameters. Results shows that total hardness and EC are most important parameters at first component and in the second component, pH and HCO3 are appropriate for assessing variations of water quality in the Gorgan-Rud Basin. The clustering procedure highlighted two different groups in which the sampling sites have similar characteristics.Optimizing Low Impact Development (LID) Methods in Urban Runoff Quantitative and Qualitative Control with Considering the Effects of Climate Change Using Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms
http://www.waterjournal.ir/article_158537.html
Quantitative and qualitative management of urban runoff in part of Karaj city has been investigated using optimization of Low Impact Development (LID) methods under base period and climate change conditions. CanESM2 was employed with the base period (1985-2005) and future period (2020-2040) under the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios to investigate climate change impacts. Hydraulic and hydrological modeling was performed by Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and was combined with Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm&nbsp;(MOPSO) and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). Thirty-seven sub-catchments and five types of LIDS are introduced to the algorithms. Eight scenarios were defined to compare and evaluate the algorithms. Under the base period conditions, by applying NSGA-II and MOPSO algorithms, the flood volume in the catchment will decrease by 21.2% and 20.3%, total suspended solids (TSS) will increase by 59.1% and 58.4%, total nitrogen (TN) will increase by 16.6% and 12.7%, and lead (Pb) concentration will increase by 29.7% and 28.7%, respectively. Solution of the algorithms under climate change conditions gave similar flood values as the base conditions. In RCP2.6 scenario, TSS will decrease by 59.5% and 55.2%, respectively, and in RCP8.5 scenario, TSS will decrease by 59.6% and 55.8%, respectively. In RCP2.6 scenario, TN will decrease by 17.4% and 13.4%, respectively, and in RCP8.5 scenario, TN will decrease by 17.6% and 13.5%, respectively. Pb in RCP2.6 scenario will decrease by 30.1% and 29.7%, respectively, and in RCP8.5 scenario, Pb will decrease by 30.9% and 30.4%, respectively.