تاثیر آبشویی با شرایط مختلف بر کیفیت زه‌آب خروجی از ستون‌های خاک شور و آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 آبیاری و زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران_

2 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمان

4 موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج

5 استادیار پژوهشی، موسسه پژوهشی آب و توسعه پایدار فلات، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

شوری خاک یکی از مهم­ترین عواملی است که باعث کاهش چشم­گیر بهره­وری محصول در باغات پسته در استان کرمان شده‌ است. در این پژوهش، با استفاده از ستون­های خاک آزمایشگاهی، تاثیر استفاده از مواد اصلاح‌کننده مختلف بر احیای یک خاک شور آهکی بررسی شد. تیمارها شامل: الف) آب آبیاری، ب) آب آبیاری+ گچ مخلوط شده با خاک سطحی و ج) گچ محلول در آب و همچنین ج) اسید سولفوریک رقیق شده بود. آبشویی خاک بصورت متناوب و تا 2 برابر حجم منفذی ستون خاک(PVs)  انجام شد. بر اساس نتایج، اختلاف معنی­داری بین تیمارهای مختلف در میزان کاتیون‌ها و EC زهاب خروجی از ستون‌های خاک مشاهده نشد. کاربرد 5/1 حجم منفذی از آب آبیاری منجر به آبشویی 60 درصد سدیم، 70 درصد منیزیم و 70 درصد از کل نمک های محلول از ستون خاک گردید. میزان کلسیم خارج شده از خاک بسیار اندک بوده و تنها 4 درصد از کل کلسیم تجمع یافته از خاک توسط 2 حجم منفذی از آب آبیاری از ستون خاک خارج شد. در مقایسه با تیمار آب آبیاری، استفاده از مواد شیمیایی اصلاح کننده در بهبود سرعت نفوذ نیز موثر نبود. بنابراین، در کاربردهای عملی، با توجه به میزان  آب مورد نیاز برای خروج املاح از 1 تا 5/1 حجم منفذی، و با درنظر گرفتن کاهش موثر میزان سدیم، منیزیم، EC و هزینه‌های اصلاح و آبشویی، می‌توان کاربرد 1 حجم منفذی از آب آبیاری را بعنوان استراتژی مناسب برای اصلاح خاک مورد مطالعه توصیه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of leaching with different condition on effluent quality removed from calcareous saline soil columns

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohadeseh Hosseininia 1
  • Farzad Hassanpour 2
  • Hormozd Naghavii 3
  • Fariborz Abbasi 4
  • Shahryar Bastani 5
1 PhD student, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of water and soil, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran;
2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of water and soil, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran;
3 Scientific Member, Research center of Agriculture, Kerman, Tel:09133416298.Email:naghavii@yahoo.com.
4 Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and extension Organization, Karaj,
چکیده [English]

Soil salinity is one of the most important factor which causing a considerable decrease in crop productivity of pistachio orchards in Kerman. In this research, the effects of applying different amendments on reclamation of a saline calcareous soil was investigated by using experimental soil columns. Treatments included: a) irrigation water, b) irrigation water + gypsum mixed with soil surface, and c) dissolved gypsum as well as d) sulfuric acid application. Leaching was done intermittently and 2 pore volumes (PVs) were allowed to pass through the soil columns. Based on the results, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of cations as well as EC among different treatments. Application of 1.5 PVs of irrigation water, removed 60% of the total sodium, 70% of magnesium and 70% of soluble salts from the soil column. The cumulative leached Ca2+ caused by 2 PVs was very small, accounted for about 4 percentage of total content of Ca2+. Application of chemical amendments was not significant on infiltration rate as compared to irrigation water. In terms of water requirement for salt removal from 1 to 1.5 pore volumes, it is recommended that 1 pore volume of irrigation water which efficiently reduced soil sodium and magnesium concentration, soil EC and costs, is the suitable strategy for practical reclamation of the studied soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dissolved gypsum
  • Effluent
  • Gypsum
  • Irrigation water
  • Sulfuric acid
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